Development areas under agriculture and fisheries include large scale concerns such as land use management, fisheries sustainability, research management, hydrology and irrigation, as well as more hands-on concerns such as crop development, technique modification, GMOs, livestock breeding, and supply chain management.
The development of nations is becoming ever more complex, as understanding of the requirements for a nation to be successful continues to expend. Contemporary Development reflects this complexity, featuring elements such as soft skills and career development, skills that are sector agnostic such as project management, monitoring and evaluation, research, and issues related to new developments such as social media and gender concerns.
At the heart of most development assistance is the core goal of economic development. The economics elements trade and industry include policy and regulatory interventions, activities to encourage entrepreneurial activity, decentralisation, negotiation of trade agreements, increased understanding of how to work with foreign investors/regulation environments, and a continuous effort to improve productive output for overall economic improvement.
EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Education and skills development are broad areas, with skills development being development outside the formal education system. Education based development typically occurs through secondary and tertiary scholarships, and through provision of new technologies to schools. Skills development is a wider approach, often focusing on non-formal methods to provide skillsets not present or underdeveloped in the beneficiary country, and can include study visits, observational attachments, workshops, conferences, and training. The training of trainers/educators is a powerful tool for supporting development across all sectors.
Energy and Power
Around 2 billion people today do not have reliable access to electricity to meet their basic needs. But energy and power are absolute requirements for the development of a nation’s economy. Without the ability to provide a minimum standard of power to entities of economic importance and to households, economic development and individual standards of living cannot progress. Establishing energy markets, regulating prices and structures for generation and provision, and accurate planning are all critical components of sector reform.
Effective and long-term management of the environment, and its constituent sub-sectors such as forestry, land management, and natural resources, is a core part of the primary economic sector which provides the materials that underpin many other aspects of economic production. Of all development sectors, it is the environment, forestry, land, and natural resources sector that has perhaps the widest impact on other sectors such as economic prosperity for the very poor, and individual baseline health.
Of all sectors in the development field, governance is one of the highest impact areas yet lowest visibility areas for a developing nation. Governance covers such areas as frontline service provision, anti-corruption, capacity strengthening, policy management, and ensuring that the law keeps abreast of the changing needs of culture, business, and technology.
Health, Welfare, and Social Services
The health and broader social services sector includes such focused interventions as the management of individual healthcare providers and training of healthcare professionals with new skills and tools, to broader facets such as the regulation of healthcare provision, development of capacity for healthcare providers, provision of new technologies to hospitals, and renewal of policies and government service frameworks, mass education, and provision of social support to disadvantaged population cohorts.
For any economy to function in the present-day, ICT must be ubiquitous, unified, high capacity, and reliable. From the provision of basic internet access to remote areas, through the deployment of high capacity systems in urban/economic hubs, telecommunications and information systems can impact have a profound effect on economic development.
In support of economic development objectives there must be transport and infrastructural development to match, or built as a necessary precursor. Transport development includes systems such as roads, rail links, road/rail hubs, airports, waterways, bridges, tunnels, and transport hubs with other infrastructure such as sewerage and sanitation systems, developments to support power capacity improvements, and residential and industrial development.
Water and sanitation are the backbone for population health for all nations. Access to clean water is considered such a priority issue that a UN agency, known simply as UN Water, has been established specifically to address it. Efforts to provide clean water and prevent debilitating population wide disease through the effective disposal of sewerage, are pre-eminent concerns. Access to clean and consistent water supply, and disposal or treatment of sewerage, are constant priorities.