Development areas under agriculture and fisheries include large scale concerns such as land use management, fisheries sustainability, research management, hydrology and irrigation, as well as more hands-on concerns such as crop development, technique modification, GMOs, livestock breeding, and supply chain management.
As a development sector, Agriculture and Fisheries not only provides a direct improvement to economic development, but is also crucial for the uplift of communities otherwise trapped in a cycle of subsistence farming, and the ongoing loss of younger generations to the perceived opportunities of urban relocation. Better forms of agricultural production will improve the economic prospects of a large proportion of the rural poor, and the improvement of food security is also a point of focus for many nations, particularly in light of the impacts of climate change and population growth continue to be felt.
Agribusiness is the business sector involving farming and farming-related commercial activities, including the production, processing, and distribution of agricultural goods to markets. Agribusinesses are an important component of the economy, supporting economic development for what are often the poorest peoples, improving access to basic foods, and supporting export growth.
Agricultural Management and Planning
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Agriculture is the broad technique and science of cultivating soil, growing crops, and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use for sustenance, and their distribution to markets. Establishing a thriving agricultural industry is necessary for social and economic establishment, and the growth of countries globally.
Aquaculture is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in water environments. As the demand for seafood has increased, technology has made it possible to grow food in coastal marine waters and the open ocean. Aquaculture is used to produce food and other commercial products, restore habitats and replenish wild stocks, and rebuild populations of threatened and endangered species.
The development of crops to further their potential to meet nutrition and economic development requirements is one of the keys to national scale development. This is particularly true of the present day, with climate and weather patterns changing. Crop development today is conducted through both the traditional means of selective breeding, but also through genetic assays and direct manipulation, and includes related efforts such as soil science, hydrology, and new fertilisers and fertilisation techniques.
Balancing the sustainability of fisheries stocks and the impacts of fishing on the environment, with the economic opportunities they offer, is an ongoing challenge. Fisheries management employs activities that protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, while allowing food security and economic development.
Food security is a measure of the availability of food, and the ability of individuals to access it. Components of food security and supporting elements include food quantity, food access, food quality, and stability of supply. Access to food security ensures environmental health, economic vitality, human health, and social equality.
Horticulture combines the science of plant cultivation with the use of plants to produce food. It is the production of edible fruits and vegetables, decorative flowers, herbs, and ornamental plants, improving through selection, and commercialising them. Production and consumption of high-quality fruits and vegetables allows us to maintain a healthy, balanced diet, and provides vast economic and employment opportunity.
Irrigation practices involve the application of controlled amounts of water to cultivars at specific intervals. Irrigation is beneficial for the vitality and growth of agricultural crops, maintaining landscapes, and revegetating soils in dry areas in a time of drought. Irrigation can help to optimise crop quality for consumption and sale, and offers significant output improvements for the agricultural and horticultural sectors.
Livestock management refers to the practice of managing farm animals and supervising breeding and selection processes. Management of herds must take into account variable seasonal factors, breeding, feed availability and quality, fluctuating markets, and variable terms of trade. Successful Livestock managers and producers have a good knowledge of both market requirements and product knowledge.
Marine technology is any technology specialised for the safe use, exploitation, protection of, and intervention in, the marine environment. Marine technology also incorporates technological means of managing the conservation and environment of marine and coastal resources and regions. This can include marine biology, oceanography and physical, chemical and biological, interactions within the ecosystem.
Pest management is the management of species which impacts adversely on human activities. Management techniques involve monitoring the crop, only applying insecticides when necessary, and by growing varieties and crops which are resistant to pests. Pest Management allows for agricultural products to be produced more efficiently and without dangerous microorganisms which can be harmful if digested.
Rural development involves economic, infrastructural, and social efforts to encourage population retention, growth, and economic expansion in areas outside cities, including improving the quality of life for rural residents. Typically, this will include the practise of agricultural, artisanal, and infrastructure development to support economic improvements.